Hazara's Nations

The Tanolis

The Tanoli  are a tribe inhabiting the Tanawal valley, in the Hazara region of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Across the Durand line, there are also Tanolis living in Ghazni and Paktia provinces of Afghanistan. There is a controversy whether the Tanolis are Pashtun Afghans or Barlas Turks, because sometimes they are acknowledged as a Barlas Turkic tribe related to the Mongols, who are Pashtunified to an extent and have assimilated many Pashtun cultural features.During the British Raj, the Tanoli, allied with other Pashtuns of the region, participated in the frontier wars 1840s against the British. In Charles Allen's analysis of these wars, the Tanolis were described as "extremely hostile" and "brave and hardy and accounted for the best swordsmen in Hazara".
Members of the Tanoli tribe mostly inhabit the districts of Haripur, Abbottabad and Mansehra in the Hazara region of the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. A branch of the Tanoli tribe also resides in Kashmir, mainly in Muzaffarabad and Srinagar. Some Tanolis are settled as far away as Karachi, Lahore and other parts of Pakistan. In Afghanistan, the Tanoli primarily live in the provinces of Ghazni and Paktia, in particular in Gardez.
In the past the larger portion of Tanawal comprised the two semi-independent native states or principalities of Amb and Phulra, ruled over by Tanoli chiefs of the same family, c 1840s to 1972. Prior to that, the area or 'Ilaqa' of Tanawal had remained an independent territory for long, from c the 14th century to the 19th.

Dawlatzai is a Pashtun sub-tribe of the Tanoli tribe mainly found in eastern Afghanistan. There are many different and distinct tribes that have this name. Dawlatzis live in Logar, Samangan, Paktia, Paktika, Khost, Balkh and Faryab provinces of Afghanistan.
The Tanoli are different than the fellow Pashtun tribe of Taniwal, who are instead a subgroup of the Khostwal supertribe and inhabit southern parts of Khost Province, primarily Tani District and adjacent villages of neighbouring districts.

In most of the Hazara region, the principal language of the Tanolis is Hindko. The Tanolis living in Pashtun dominated areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and in Afghanistan speak Pashto, whereas many living in other parts of Pakistan have adopted Urdu and other languages.

The Tanolis originally lived in Dara Tanal, in the Ghazni region of Afghanistan. In the 10th century, the Tanolis joined the army of the Ghaznavid Emperor Sabuktigin and traveled with them to Hindustan. After the conquests, the Tanolis settled in Swat and Buner, formed their own state and appointed Anwar Khan Tanoli as their first head.
But later they came into conflict with the other Afghan tribes who had newly migrated eastward into the region, most notably the Yusufzai. The Tanolis were defeated under their leader Ameer Khan Tanoli at a battle in Topi. When the Tanolis were ousted, they migrated further eastwards and crossed the Indus River under the command of Mawlawi Muhammad Ibrahim Khan, and succeeded to defeat the Turks settled on the eastern bank of the Indus River, capturing the territory.
In 1752, the Tanolis allied with the Afghan Emperor Ahmad Shah Abdali and took part in military conquests, including the Battle of Panipat in 1761, under their chief Zabardast Khan Tanoli who was given the title of "Suba Khan" by Ahmad Shah Baba for his bravery.
In the 18th and early 19th century, two of the main Tanoli clans, the Hindwal and the Pallal, fell into a feud and had a bitter struggle between them. The Hindwal clan gradually began to gain ascendancy, and Mir Painda Khan of the Hindwal clan successfully united all Tanolis into one entity, which eventually became the princely states of Amb and Phulera. The Amb State lasted until 1969, with its primary capital at Darband, and summer capital at Shergarh.
The construction of the Tarbela Dam reservoir in the early 1970s submerged Darband, a capital of the former state of Amb, underwater.

The origin of the Tanaolis is uncertain. Wikely and Watson are of the opinion that a genealogical table shows them to be connected with the janjuas. Another theory is brought forward by Sardar Mohammad Ayub Khan retired session Judge of Azad Kashmir who says the Tanaolis are Abbassis. The Tanaolis themselves claim that they are Barlas Mughals. They trace their lineage to Amir Khan. Syed Murad Ali Shah, the writer of "Tarikh-i-tanaolian", supports their claim saying that the forefathers of the Tanaolis lived in the Tanal Pass, the then famous pass in Afghanistan. He further says that Sultan Sabuktageen, after defeating a Hindu Mahraja Jaipala conquering the area up to Attock, brought five thousand people from the Tanal Pass who were a mixture of the Mughals, Syeds and Afghans and settled them in Swat where Anawar Din Khan Mughal was appointed the ruler. For a long time they ruled Swat and gradually settled in Mahaban. The ancestor of Tanaolis was Amir Khan Beerdewa who had six sons namely Pall Khan, Hind Khan, Thakar Khan, Arjin Khan and Kul Khan. After the names of Beerdewa's sons there are six main clans of the Tanaolis. They are also split up into numerous smaller sections, whose names all end in at.
The Tanaolis came from across the Indus, being pushed out of the Mahaban country by the Yousafzais when they increased in numbers and power. Their pressure compelled the Tanaolis to cross the Indus in search of new land for their dwelling. So they, under the command of Maulvi Mohammad Ibrahim, Crossed the river Indus and after defeating the Turks's lashkar settled there. Their settlement took place in 1472 when Chara and Mamara were their prominent leaders. The area was divided by the brothers into two parts - the upper and the lower Tanawal. The former occupied by Hindwal and latter by Palal. Haibat Khan and Suba Khan, after eleven generations, became prominent Khans of whom former founded Amb state. His grandson, Painda Khan, became independent master of the area and he not only fought with Sikhs but also with Mujahidin who were under Syed Ahmad Shaheed's command.

The Tanoli consider themselves to descend from one Amir Khan, a Barlas Mughal who (so says their tradition) arrived in the Tanawal valley with his sons around 1500, having crossed the Indus river to get there. But it seems more probable that they came somewhat earlier during the 14th century at the time when various Turkic invaders were attacking and conquering 'Hindustan'.
This claim of descent of Tanolis is also mentioned in The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australia (1841), in the following words; "There is one chief who, though not a Eusofzye, yet from his position in the midst of, and intimate connection with, the Eusofzyes, and his singular history and character, must not be omitted in a description of the Eusofzye country. Paieendah Khan, of Tanawul, is a Mogul of the Birlas tribe, the same from which the Ameer Timoor was descended. All record of the first settlement in Tanawul of his family is lost, and it has long ago broken off all connection with the other branches of the Birlas, which are still to be found in Turkestan.
The Imperial Gazetteer of India also confirms this line of descent; it states, "Its (Tanawul's) real rulers, however, were the Tanawalis, a tribe of Mughal descent divided into two septs, the Pul-al and Hando-al or Hind-wal."
The Sikh records of the region also confirm this line of descent of the Tanolis. They state, "The family of Paeendah Khan is a branch of the Birlas, a Mogul House, well known in history. All record of its first settlement in Tanawul is lost. It may perhaps have been left there by the Emperor Baber. Among the list of whose nobles, the name Birlas is found."
This claim of descent has also been mentioned by Wikeley, J. M, who writes "The Tanaolis claim descent from Amir Khan, a Barlas Moghal (in fact not a Mughal/Mongol but a Turk), whose two sons Hind Khan and Pal Khan crossed the Indus about the end of the 17th century, from the country round Mahaban, and settled in the Mountainous area now held by them and named after the tribe — Tanawal.
While the Barlas Turkic descent of the Tanolis is the most commonly held and believed, other theories also exist, which link them to either (a) Afghan/Pashtun descent and (b) Abbassi origins, variously. It would be perhaps right to concur with the commentary to the 1881/1891 census that "...there can be little doubt that they are of [Indo-Iranian or Indo-European origin] and probably of Indian stock."

Hereditary Tanoli rulers of Amb
Tenure                              Rulers of Amb (Tanawal)
unknown date - 1803         (Mir) Haibat Khan
1803 - 1805                      (Mir) Hashim Ali Khan (son of the above and brother of the following)
1805 - 1809                      (Mir) Nawab Khan
1809–1844                        (Mir) Painda Khan
1844–1868                        (Nawab) Jahandad Khan
1868–1907                         (Nawab) Muhammad Akram Khan
1907 - 26 February 1936     (Nawab) Khanizaman Khan
26 February 1936 - 1971     (Nawab) Muhammad Farid Khan
1971–1972                         (Nawab) Muhammad Saeed Khan (last Nawab of Amb)
1972/73                             (Nawabzada) Salahuddin Saeed Khan
British assessments

The Hindwal and Pallal are the major divisions of the tribe. The further sub–divisions of the tribe are

Jamal; Charyal, Ledhyal, Abdwal, Khankhail,  Saryal; Lalal, Hedral, Baizal, Jalwal, Bohal,  Baigal, Tekral,  Ansal, Masand, Rains

        Labhyal (Suba Khani), Matyal, Bainkaryal, Dairal, Sadhal, Judhal, Baigal, Tekral,  Asnal, Masand, Rains, Bhujal

Tanolis at the Third Battle of Panipat
The Tanolis also allied with Ahmad Shah Abdali in The Third Battle of Panipat which took place on January 14, 1761 at Panipat (Haryana State, India) where they decisively defeated 250,000 strong army of Marathas with an army of only 60,000 soldiers, from allied tribes. The Tanoli Chief Sardar Zabardast Khan was given the title of Suba Khan by Abdali, for his bravery in the historical battle.

Tanoli Resistance against the Sikhs
Mir Painda Khan, was a powerful Tanoli, son of Mir Nawab Khan (see list above), who is famed for his rebellion against Maharaja Ranjit Singh's governors of Hazara and united the Tanolis under his authority. Painda Khan "played a considerable part in the history of his time and vigorously opposed the Sikhs." From about 1813, Mir Painda Khan spent a life long rebellion against the Sikhs. Hari Singh Nalwa, the Sikh Governor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh to Hazara, took the initiative during his governorship of setting up forts at strategic locations to keep Painda Khan in check. Painda Khan's rebellion against the Sikh empire cost him a major portion of his fiefdom, leaving only the tract around Amb,. This increased his resistance against the Sikh government. Eventually, General Dhaurikal Singh, commanding officer of the Sikh troops in Hazara, had Painda Khan poisoned to death in September 1844. Painda Khan is still revered in Hazara today for his role as a freedom fighter. Major J. Abbott[21] commented that 'During the first period of Painda Khan's career, he was far too vigorous and powerful to be molested by any neighbouring tribe, and when he began to fail before the armies and purse of the Sikh Government, he was interested in keeping upon the best terms with his northern neighbours of the Black Mountains and to whom he allowed the privillege of pasture in the small Tupa of Turrowra.' He is further described by him as, 'a Chief renowned on the Border, a wild and energetic man who was never subjugated by the Sikhs.'
Sardar Jehandad Khan son of Painda Khan also fought hard against the Sikhs. It was said, "Of all the tribal chiefs of Hazara, the most powerful [was] said to be Jehandad Khan of the Tanoli."
When Sikh power was on the decline in 1845 Jehandad Khan blockaded the garrisons of no less than 22 Sikh posts in Upper Tanawal; and when they surrendered at discretion, he spared their lives, as the servants of a fallen Empire. "The act, however, stood him afterwards in good stead; for, when Hazara was assigned to Maharaja Golab Singh, that politic ruler rewarded Jehandad Khan's humanity with the jagir of Koolge and Badnuck in Lower Tannowul."

Tanoli Relations with British Empire
The British Empire's first contact with the Tanolis was an unpleasant one, as in 1852, Jehandad Khan was summoned by the President of the Board of Administration in relation to a murder enquiry of two British officers supposedly in his lands[24] but he managed to show his innocence and consolidate his position with the British administration.
The British Government since then considered Upper Tanawal as a chiefship held under the British Government, but in which, as a rule, they did not possess internal jurisdiction. The Chief managed his own people in his own way without regard to British laws, rules or system. This tenure resembled that on which the Chiefs of Patiala, Jhind, Nabha, Kapurthala and others held their lands.[25]

Role in the Kashmir Conflict of 1947-48
Nawab Muhammad Farid Khan sent an army of 1500 Amb State soldiers under the leadership of Subedar Major Shah Zaman Khan to take part in the Kashmir Liberation Movement from 1947 to 1948 (Kashmir Conflict). The Amb State force carried its own artillery to the battle. They fought bravely alongside other frontier tribesmen and came under fire by the Indian airforce just three kilometers from Baramulla sector. Around 200 Amb State soldiers lost their lives in the battle.

Notable Tanolis:

    * Mir Painda Khan
    * Mir Jehandad Khan
    * Muhammad Khan Zaman Khan
    * Muhammad Farid Khan
    * Nawabzada Salahuddin Saeed Khan
    * Hakim Taniwal, Governor of Paktia province in Afghanistan
    * Feroz Khan, Sanjay Khan, Fardeen Khan, Zayed Khan, Indian film actors
    * Akbar Khan, Indian film actor, screenwriter, producer and director,

The Gujars are the oldest tribe of Mansehra. There are differenees of opinion about their origin (for detail see Chapter two). Many writers recognised them as Gurjara who came to India with the Huns and settled in Punjab and Rajputana. After the decline of the White Huns they established Gurjara state in Rajputana.Sinee at that time Buddhism was the dominant religion, therefore, they accepted it. On Buddhism 's decline the Hindus once again established their dominanee over India. The Hindu Rajput Rajas got dominance in the pungab and made the Budh Gujars the vietims of their tyranny.  Because of the Rajputs oppression they migratted to Hazara, Dir and Swat around 9th century A.D. Afterwards these people Were contnuously overpowered by the other tribes.
The Gujars had come to Hazara earlier then other tribes. They were the sole occupants of Hazara before the advent of the Muslims. The Muslims made them their subjects when they reached the soil of Hazara. The Afghan tribes one after another came to Hazara and deprived the Gujars of their possessions. The Dilazaks were the first people who disturbed their peaceful life. On the Gujar's compliant the Mughal emperor Jahangir expelled them from Hazara. During the reign of Aurangzeb Alamgir the Gujars lived a peaceful life. On Alamgir's coming to Hassan Abdal a Gujar namely Daulat Baig welcomed him and got the title of Muqaddam from him. In Hazara Jagal Gujars of Haripur and the Khatana Gujars of Kot Najibullah Whom Daulat Gujar belonged, were the only powerful and well to do families of the  Gujars.
When a widespread revolt started in the Frontier many tribes crossed the Indus and captured the lands of the Gujars. In Mansehra the Swatis under Syed Jalal Baba captured the fertile lands and forests and pushed the Gujars to poorer lands on the hilltops where there was no fertility of  land.. Thus gradually the other tribes got dominance  over them. This is why the Gujars perforce remained the herdsmen.
When Syed Ahmad Shaheed selected the soil of Hazara for his freedom movement against the Sikhs, the Gujars were powerless then because the other tribes had got the dominance over them. Nevertheless, they served Syed Ahmad whenever the need arose. The Gujar not only guided the to sit on Mujahidin Passages to present them milk and curd. The Gujars not only guided the Mujahidin but also cleaned snow covered routes. They proved themselves as a good hosts as well. Some people accuse them that it was they who helped the Sikhs come over from Dadar and on to Syed Ahmad at Balakot. But the Gujar reject this blame having said that there is no proof of the Gujars treachery. They further say the crime of one man cannot be attributed to the whole tribe.
At the advent of Sikhs the Gujars were living on mountains height, in valleys and plains. But after the establishment of the British rule their condition became more critical and many people were deprived of their lands. They started living as tenants of the local Khans whose tyranny made them lower creature. They worked under duress for the Khans day and night. Thus they became an ineffective group of the area. It was in 1950 when their life changed and they gained occupancy rights of land due to late Abdul Qayum Khan's land reforms. The force labour did not finish unless Z.A. Bhutto's era came. For the first time in the election of 1970 their candidate Sardar Abd-ur-Rehman contested the election. It was Bhutto's era which created in them political awareness. Thus the Gujars appeared on political scene and in 1985's election Sardar Mohammad Yousaf Contested P.F. 45 and won it. Now he is the member of National Assembly from N.A. 14. the Gujars have changed themselves and are no longer an oppressed people of a lower status. They have been raised from the abysmal depth of debasement.

About the origin of the Swatis the historians hold different  views but the Swatis relate their lineage to Qais Abdur-Rasheed the remote ancestor of the Pathans. During the rule of Mohammad Ghuri they came to Swat where they defeated the Hindus and established their rule Sir Denzil Ibbitson is of the opinion that the original Swatis were a race of Hindu origin who once ruled the whole country into the hills of Swat and Buneer. Later on the Yousafzais expelled them from those places and drove them east and west into Mansehra and Kafristan. they are considered a very heterogeneous people not a pure race.
According to a tradition of the Swatis they ruled over Swat and Bajaor for four centuries before the Yousafzais invasion which drove them to Mansehra about the end of the 17th century. The Swatis came to Mansehra, when the Turks ruled over this territory, under the command of Syed Jalal Baba. They ousted the Turks and captured the hilly and plain areas. Jalal Baba divided the whole country among the lashkar except one fourth of it which he kept for himself. Since they came from Swat, therefore, are called Swatis. They occupy the whole of Mansehra district except Tanawal. The are divided into three great clans, Ghebri, Mamiali and Mitravi of which the first claim Tajik, the Mamiali Yousafzai, and the Mitravi Durrani origin. The Ghebri a section of upper Pakhli occupy Kaghan, Balakot, Ghari Habibullah, Mansehra, Dhodial, Shinkiari, Batagram, Thakot and Konsh while the Mamiali and Mitravi dwell in Bherkund, Agror, Takri and Deshi. In Allai Inhabit both the groups. These groups have been further divided into many subsections. Both educationally and politically they are in a strong position.

Many writers have advanced different theories about the origin of the Awans. Hair Krishan Ray considers them to be of purely Hindu origin.. He says the word Awan is of Sanskrit language which mcans helper. He further says that these people got this name due to successful defence against any foreign aggression. After their conversion to Islam they attached themselves with Qutb Shah and started to call them Qutb Shahi Awan. Major Wace is inclined to give them a Jat origin. Raverty considers them the blend of Badri tribes which was originally Hindu.
According to H.A. Rose the Awans have an Arabian Origin and are descendants of Qutb Shah. He traces their lineage to Hazrat Ali. In his view the descendants of Ali assisted Sabuktageen in his Indian adventure for which he bestowed the title of Awan on them, which means assistants. Malik Fazal Dad Khan has supported this theory but with some modification. He also considers them of Arabian origin and traces their lineage to Hazrat Ali. But according to him Abdullah Rasul-Mirza was the remote ancestor of the Awans. In 8th century, he was made a commander of the army of Ghaur by Caliph Haroon-ur-Rasheed, with the title of Awan and his descendants are called the Awans. Sabiha Shaheen, in her theses for her M.A. degree considers this theory as tenable. She further says that Qutb Shah fled to India along with a small group of people due to Mongol attack, and joined the court of Altamash. His descendants are called the Qutb Shahi Awans. They settled themselves in the Punjab but when the Mongol ravaged Punjab probably at that time the Awans came to Hazara. They are split up into numerous clans. The best known of these clans are the Chauhans, Khokhar, Golra, Kalga, Rhan, Chajji, Shial, Jand, Mumnal, Sadian, Parbat etc. the Awans are Scattered Throughout the district. The are good cultivators and most of them are Qutb Shahi.

The Syeds are the descendants of Hazrat Ali, the Prophet's son-in-law, who married Hazrat Fatima. They accompanied every Muslim Lashkar either as its leaders or preachers. The Syeds came to Mansehra in both ways. Syeds Jalal Baba, a descendent live in Kaghan and Swabi Maira.
The Syeds helped Syed Ahmad Shaheed in his campaign against the Sikhs. The Syeds of Kaghan for a long time remained independent masters of the glen. The British subdued them in 1852. Major Abbot drove them out from Kaghan but in 1855 they were permitted to get back their territory. During the war of independence, 1857, they helped the British in arresting 55 freedom fighters. The Syeds in Mansehra belong to Tirmazi, Gilani, Mashadi, Bakri and Bukhari sections.
The Syeds are settled in every tehsil of Mansehra. They are very influential and are respected everywhere.

The Jadoon
The Jadoon is a Pashtun Afghan tribe in Pakistan, partly in Gadoon in Swabi, and partly in Abbottabad and Haripur districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. Across the Durand line, some members of the tribe live in Nangarhar and Kunar in Afghanistan. The Jadoons speak Pashto in Swabi and Afghanistan and Hindko in Abbottabad and Haripur. The Jadoons are subdivided into three clans: Salar, Mansoor and Hassazai.

The Jadoons originally lived on the western slopes of the Spin Ghar range, in the Nangarhar region of Afghanistan. Later on, the Jadoons migrated to the Kabul region. In the 16th century, the Jadoons, along with the Yusufzai, were expelled from Kabul by Mirza Ulugh Beg, a paternal uncle of the Mughal Emperor Babur, and they migrated eastwards into the Peshawar region and settled in areas inhabited by the Dilazak tribe of the Afghans. They succeeded to defeat the Dilazaks at the battle of Katlang, and pushed them towards the Hazara region east of the Indus River. The Jadoons eventually settled in Swabi at the western bank of the Indus River. But later, some of the Jadoons also settled on the eastern bank of the Indus River, in Abbottabad and Haripur.[citation needed]

The Karlal
The Karlal (also known as Kard'al, Karaal, Karhral, or Kiraal) are a tribe found in the Abbottabad and Haripur districts of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The tribe trace their descent from Sardar Kallar Shah son of Sujann Shah, who is believed to be the descendant of Alexander the Great. In Haripur and Abbottabad, they are known as Sardars because during the time of the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1296) they became the Sardars (meaning leaders) of this area[citation needed]. The majority of the people of the Karlal tribe are Sunni Muslims. Although the Sardari-system is now obsolete, the name prevails due to extensive usage by local peoples, including other tribes who prefer to refer Karlals as Sardars. The various purported origins of the Karlal are mentioned both in the census reports of Ibbetson and Rose[citation needed]as well as in the district Gazetteer - compiled during British rule[citation needed]. They are extensively distributed in hilly areas of Abbottabad District known as Gallies or Galyat.They are a Hindko speaking tribe.

In 1822 Ranjit Singh sent a large force under famous General Amar Singh Majitta which was defeated by karlals with great slaughter. Amar Singh was also murdered by Karlal. Lepel Griffin writes in his book about this battle of Sumandar Khata. From 1822 to 1845 Karlal tribe fought many battles with Sikhs and was able to retain its independence throughout Sikh period. In 1844 once again Lahore Darbar sent a large force under Diwan Mulraj and Hari Singh to subdue Karlal country, again taking advantage of their difficult geographical terrain Karlals were able to defeat Sikh army at place called Nah and killed more than 150 Sikh soldiers.
During the British period at the time of mutiny in 1857 this tribe tried to revolt against the rule of East India company, however, Britishers were able to imprison Karlal chief Sardar Hassan Ali Khan and many mutineers of this tribe were hanged along with some Dund tribesmen (Mutiny Reports 1857 of Hazara District). According to the District Gazetteers of Rawalpindi and Hazara written jointly by the respective Deputy Commissioners of the above areas, the tribe Kharral of Gojra in Punjab, derive their ancestors from the Karlals in Abbottabad, Hazara. The account of the 1857 India's First War of Independence also known as the Indian Mutiny clearly establishes strong cooperation and connectivity between the two tribes linking them to the common ancestor with the assumption that the Kharrals of Gojra and Karlals of Abbottabad are actually the one and the same tribe. British has to establish five cantonments of Bara Gali, Nathia Gali, Dounga Gali, Changlagali in the small Karlal territory to keep this tribe subdued along with the construction of road which started immediately after war of independence of 1857.
During the time of Indian independence movement entire Karral tribe joined the flanks of Muslim League and strive hard for the creation of Pakistan. In the elections of 1946 fought on the single point of division of India, people of this tribe were forerunners in defeating congress candidates who had the backing of more populace tribes like Jadoons and Sawatis. In fact the representative and leader of this tribe at that time Captain Sardar Zain Muhammad Khan was not only able to defeat rival Indian National Congress candidate from Abbottabad's only constituency at that time but had the honor of representing entire District Hazara in the historic Delhi. Muslim League Parliamentarians Convention which under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam finally voted for division of India and creation of Pakistan.

Notable people
    Mr. Justice Sardar Muhammad Raza Khan (Judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan)
    Sardar Baba Haider Zaman Khan (Ex.Nazim of Abbottabad District, Founder of Tehreek-e-Sooba-Hazara)

The Dhund Abbasi
The Dhund Abbasi are a tribe of northern Pakistan.The tribe is spread throughout Circle Bakote in the Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Poonch District, Bagh, Kashmir, and the Murree Hills area.

Origin and History of the Dhund Abbasi
There are two main theories about the origins of the Dhund Abbasi. They themselvs now claim that they came to ancient India (modern day Pakistan) from Egypt, as traders and merchants in commodities like fabrics, perfumes and diamonds. Envoys and traders of the Abbasids came to Taxila, ancient Pakistan, where they constructed a mosque and started preaching Islam by the order of Caliph Harun al-Rashid around 844 CE. An 'Abbasi' scholar, Abu Fadhal, taught a Kashmiri King Onti Vermon in 882, and he translated the Quran into Hindi. This was the first translation of the Quran into an Indian language. In 1025 CE, Raja Mall of Jhelum, embraced Islam by Mahmud Ghazni and constructed a fort at Malot, Malpur near Islamabad in present day Pakistan administered Kashmir. He died in Jhelum.They established a colony near Delhi in 1232. Sardar Tolak Khan, who came to Kashmir during the reign of King Zain-ul-Abidin (1423 to 1474), settled in the Poonch area (now the Bagh District of Azad Kashmir) and that they spread eventually to the Hazara region of NWFP/Khyber Pakhtunkhwa from these areas.
The other view, chiefly espoused by British colonial scholars, researchers, early explorers and administrators, including Ibbeston, Griffin and Massey and others, ascribes an indigenous, Hindu ancestry to the Dhunds. In the book A Glossary of The Tribes & Castes of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province, published in 1911, the Dhund are described as follows:
“...They claim to be descendants of Abbás, the paternal uncle of the Prophet; but there is [also] another tradition that their ancestor Takth Khán came with Taimúr to Delhi where he settled; and that his descendant Zoráb Khán went to Kahúta in the time of Sháh Jahán and beget the ancestors of the Jadwál, Dhánd, Sarrára and Tanáoli tribes. His son Khalára or Kalu Rai was sent to Kashmír and married a Kashmíri woman from whom the Dhúnd are sprung and also a Katwál woman. From another son the Satti, who are the bitter enemies of the Dhúnd, are said to have sprung; but this the Satti deny and claim descent from Nausherwán. These traditions are of course absurd. Kalu Rai is a Hindu name and one tradition makes him brought up by a Brahmin."
Both Col.Wace who carried out the Hazara's permanent revenue settlement in the 1870s and the first Hazara Gazetteer are of the opinion that the Dhunds, like their near kin the Karlal, were only recent converts to Islam and that their acquaintance with the Muhammadan (Islamic) faith was still slight, and relics of their original Hindu faith was still observable in their social habits. Both Wace and other administrators and officials made an extensive and detailed study of the earliest and original genealogies of the Dhund and Karlal tribes in Hazara and some of them also mentioned how, in keeping with their change of religion/faith, some of the Dhund and Karlal chiefs were gradually trying to change and 'manufacture' new pedigrees and genealogies to reflect a different origin altogether.
Thus, it is likely that the Dhúnd, Karlal, Satti, Bib, Chibh and many others are all of Hindu origin, all originally occupants of the hills on this part of the Jhelum, and all are most probably connected.

They are found in the Abbottabad District and Rawalpindi District, although they are scattered in other parts of the Indian Subcontinent.

Notable people
    Muztar Abbasi, a Muslim scholar
    Sherbaz Khan, leader of the Dhund Abbasi tribe in the Hazara Region of colonial India during the time of the British Raj.

The Tareen (or Tarin)
The Tareen (or Tarin) (Pashto: ترین) are a prominent Sarbanri Pashtun tribe residing in Afghanistan and in Pakistan. They are one of the largest Pashtun tribes.

Tareen was great grand son of Qais Abdur Rashid see List of non-Arab Sahaba. Tareen year of birth is round about 650 to 700 AD. The Tareen inhabit parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Early military role
Historically, little is known or heard of them prior to the invasions of India by Sultan Muhammad Ghori, c 12th century, in which some Tareens (then largely inhabiting Afghanistan) played a significant military role and gradually began to move Eastwards into various parts of what used to be North-West India and is now Pakistan.

By the 15th or 16th century, by and large the various sections of the Tareen tribe had settled in and occupied the areas they still inhabit, indeed some of them assimilating into earlier cultures and/or ethnic groups in these areas.[2]

Family tree of Tareen tribe
    Qais Abdur Rashid (575–661)
    Sarbans,     Serfiun Sharfudeen,    Tareen,     Abdali or Durrani,

Branches of the Tareen tribe
The two main Tareen divisions, discounting the Abdali/Durrani, are the Spin Tareen (Safed Tareen, or White Tareen) and the Tor Tareen (Black Tareen), founded by Tareen's eponymous sons. Tareen was also said to have had a fourth son, Zhar Tareen. According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India (1908), The principal "Khels" (septs) and subsections of the Tareen tribe are

    Tor,    Spin,    Bor or Abdaal,    Zharh

Of these, the Tor and Bor/Abdal are the most important and numerous and have been discussed further below.
Tor Tareen
Tor Tareens are divided into the following principal sections:
    Batezai,    Abubakar,    Noorzai or Nurzai,    Sakhizai (Sakhi Shehwarand),    Malikyar,    Sagi

Bor Tareen or Abdal Tareen
The Bor or Abdali Tareens inhabit Afghanistan mostly and comprise chiefly of these sections:
    Zirak,    Barakzai,    Popalzai,    Alikozai,    Achakzai,    Panjpai,    Alizai,    Ishaqzai,    Noorzai

The Bor/Abdali Tareens came to be known as 'Durranis' after Ahmad Shah Abdali became Emir of Afghanistan, and gradually this term superseded their original name.[3] The Abdali/Durranis later on expanded into a separate tribal entity and the Durrani confederacy is generally considered as a separate tribe in itself, and one of the two most powerful tribal confederacies in Afghanistan, the other being the Ghilzai tribe

Paracha (Also rendered as Peracha,Piracha) is a family name in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India.

Contrary to common belief, the word Piracha or a variant thereof, is not found in any Arabic or Persian dictionary. This word was never a part of Arabic or Persian languages at any time in history. In contrast, John Platt’s Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi and English identifies Piracha as the Hindi variant of the Sanskrit adjective Prachya, meaning "eastern, a person living in the east, the eastern country, the country which lies south or east of the river Sarasvati."
However, most Pirachas today, devout Muslims who hold an Arab connection sacred, believe that they are descendents of Hazrat Aziz Yemeni, a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Hazrat Aziz was a farash (Arabic: "one who spreads a carpet") to Muhammad and hence his descendants took on the surname Farasha. During the Arab conquest of Persia (640-644 AD), Abul Aas, the son of Hazrat Aziz Yemeni, settled down in Persia and married a Persian Princess. According to myth, the Persians transcribed his surname as Paracha and that is how his successors came to be known in Persia and later in Afghanistan and the Indus Valley after the Arabs conquered these areas.
This myth is quickly debunked when analysed in the context of the Persian language. The word Piracha (Hindko for the Sanskrit word Prachya) is not found in any dictionary of the Persian language. On the contrary, the word farasha with its original spelling, pronunciation, and meaning has become a part of the Persian language since the Arab conquest of Persia and appears in all standard Persian lexicons. Since the sound of "f" and the corresponding letter of the alphabet (fa or fae) is common to both Arabic and Persian, it would make no sense for the Persians to transcribe Farasha as Paracha - especially since the word farasha was also inducted unchanged into the Persian language. The induction of scores of Arabic words beginning with fa unchanged into Persian with their original form and meaning intact – faragh (leisure), faraghat (respite), firaq (separation), far’d (individual), firar (flight), fat’h (victory), fira’sat (sagacity) etc. – is clear evidence that there was no reason to transcribe Farasha as Paracha or to borrow a word from an Indian Prakrit to identify an Arab Commander of the victorious army.
Secondly, linguistic transcriptions have well defined rules. An important rule is that the transcript must invariably transfer the original meaning of the word being transcribed into the new language. When Panchanada was transcribed as Punjab in Persian, it meant the same thing as Panchanada in Sanskrit, i.e. the land of the five tributaries of the river Indus. Similarly, when the Greeks transcribed Prachya as Prasii or Prasiake, the meaning remained the same, i.e. Eastern, or the people of Magadha and surrounding provinces lying east of the river Sarasvati. This rule is grossly violated if Farasha is transcribed as Paracha because the meaning of farasha is completely lost.
The earliest use of the word Prachya is in Aitareya Brahmana, the prose commentary on Rigveda, where Prachya has been defined as the name of the eastern country in a five-fold division of Vedic India. Satapatha Brahmana, the prose commentary on Yajurveda, is the second source confirming the Aryan origin of the Prachya. It informs its readers, while discussing certain sacrificial rituals, that the Prachya address Agni, the god of fire, as ‘Sarva.’ Two sacred books of the Indo-Aryans thus define Prachya as the eastern country of Vedic India. According to Panini and later grammarians, Sanskrit had been divided into two distinct literary forms in the later Vedic age – Udicya (northern) and Pracya (eastern). This explains the text of Satapatha Brahmana when it refers to Sarva representing Agni in the eastern dialect. Two important books of ancient Indo-Aryans thus identify Prachya as the eastern country – the country east of the river Sarasvati.
Writing about this period, Dr. Romila Thapar records: "Classical Sanskrit became gradually and increasingly the language of the Brahmans and the learned few, or had a restricted use on certain occasions such as the issuing of proclamations and official documents or during Vedic ceremonies. In the towns and the Villages, however, a popular form of Sanskrit was spoken which was called Prakrit. It had local variations; the Chief Western Variety was called Shauraseni, and the eastern variety was called Magadhi." Pali was literary Prakrit based on Sanskrit and used in the east. Buddha (563-483 BC), wishing to reach a wider audience, taught in Magadhi. He was a prince of Sakyas, a Himalayan republic, who had rejected Brahmanism and was preaching a religion completely opposed to Vedic teachings, the caste-system, animal sacrifices, and Brahman rituals. As he was preaching in Magadhi, the language of The Prachya, Magadha became the heartland of Buddhism and Prachya became the vanguard of this dissident movement. According to Dr. Joshi, the Brahmans of the Vedic tradition "abused and reviled" the Buddha as an atheist (nastika), a demon (asura) and as an outcaste (Shudra). The word Prachya thus historically represents the tip of the iceberg of intense hostility towards any system of thought opposed to Brahman apartheid. This antipathy is mutual and the Prachya did not wish to be connected with Brahmanism either. Prachya is hence not a Hindu designation, but a Sanskrit word for the eastern country (Magadha) which had supported the arch enemies of Brahmanism – Mahavira and Buddha.
Prachya contribution to the development of Sanskrit language and literature can be assessed from the fact that Panini of Taxila and the later grammarians divide Sanskrit into two main dialects – Udicya (northern, Taxila and Kashmir) and Praciya (eastern, Magadha and surrounding countries).
The strongest evidence in support of the Prachya claim to an Aryan origin is, therefore, the word Prachya itself. Prachya is a linguistic as well as a geographic identity. It is a Sanskrit word, and Sanskrit was the language of the Indo-Aryan elite of antiquity. It was a geographic term used for the country east of the river Saresvati in Sanskrit literature. Sarasvati has been defined as a river which rises in the mountains bounding the north-east part of the Province of Delhi and flowing in a south-eastern direction gets lost in the sands of the Rajisthan desert. It was the Naditama (foremost of the rivers) in the Later Vedic and Epic literature. The word Prachya is, thus, area specific and cannot be used for the Aryans of Iran or Afghanistan.
Prachya is not an isolated word and forms part of a family of well-known words like Prachin (eastern, ancient); Prachinate (antiquity); Prachin Adhikar (prescriptive right); Prachi (an eastern female); Purva (being before or in front, previous, antecedent, east, eastern, easterly), Purvardha (the first half, front or upper part, eastern part); Purva-disa, Purva-dis, Purva–dik, Prachya, (the eastern region, eastern quarter, the eastern part of India), Purva-desi (a native of the eastern part of India), Purva-samundra, the eastern sea; Purva-Ja (former, elder, born in the east or the eastern country). Historically, the people of Magadha and surrounding provinces were described as Prachya in Sanskrit, Greek and Buddhist chronicles.

The Gakhars
The Gakhars (also Gakkhar or Ghakhar or Ghakkar) are an ancient warrior clan who have predominantly resided in what is present day northern Punjab and South-Western Kashmir, Pakistan. In particular in the cities of Attock City, Rawalpindi, Jhelum and regions of Gilgit, Baltistan, Chitral, Khanpur (KPK) and Mirpur, Pakistan. They gradually developed into a feudal system over time oppressing and raiding their neighbors.
The 1893-94 Gazetteer of the Rawalpindi District also notes that:
    "From the moment where oral traditions give way to more authentic historical records, the history of the Potohar becomes that of the Gakhar clan. The Gakhars became prominent at the time of the early Muslim era and have more or less maintained their rule over the city of Rawalpindi and parts of Hazara and Jhelum districts, independent of the sovereign powers at Delhi and Agra, until being defeated at the beginning of the nineteenth century by the Sikhs."
    There were the Jats, the Gujjars, and many other peoples living in the mountains between the Nilab and Bhera (in Jhelum district), which are connected to the mountains of Kashmir. Their rulers and chieftains belong to the Gakhar clan whose chieftain ship is like that of the Jud[disambiguation needed] and Janjua.[citation needed]
Up to this time, around 1519, the Gakhars and Janjua Rajputs had engaged in an endless battle for sovereignty over the Salt Range.
    The history of this region (the Salt Range) from the thirteenth century onward had been a sickening record of wars between the Janjuhas and the Gakkhars for political ascendancy.
However, the alliance of Raja Sahib Khan (Janjua overlord) and Malik Bir Khan Gakhar, saw a period of peace between the two tribes (both being visionary princes, and with a legendary friendship of treating each other as half brothers). This was later abruptly ended upon the ascension of Hathi Khan Gakhar as the leader of the Gakhar tribe, who assassinated Malik Hast Janjua's father, thereby reawakening the old feud between the two clans.

    "At that time (1519), the chieftains of the peoples on the mountainsides were two cousins, Tatar Khan and Hati "Elephant" Gakhar. Their strongholds were the ravines and cliffs. Tatar's seat was Pharwala, which is way below the snow-covered mountains. Hati, whose territory was adjacent to the mountains, had gained dominance over Kalinjar, which belonged to Babu Khan of Bisut. Tatar Khan had seen Dawlat Khan and owed him total allegiance; Hati, however, had not seen him and maintained a rebellious attitude towards him. With the advice and agreement of the Hindustan Begs, Tatar had gone and camped at a distance as though to lay siege to Hati. While we were in Bhera, Hati seized upon some pretext to make a surprise attack on Tatar, kill him, and lay hands on his territory, his wives, and everything he had."
Babur also gives an account of his attack on Hati Gakhar at the fortress of Pharwala.[where?]

The medieval Gakhars and Humayun
Humayun, Babur's son, ruled from 1530–1540. Humayun lost his Indian territories to the Afghan Sultan, Sher Shah Suri, and, with Persian aid, regained them fifteen years later.
According to the Akbarnama, Sher Shah Suri started a genocidal war against Sultan Sarang. Khan Gakhar who remained loyal to Humayun, building the massive Rohtas Fort in 1541-43 (designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997) in an effort to crush the Gakhars, to whom the fort was finally surrendered ten years after Sher Suri's death. Sultan Sarang built Rawat Fort nearby and is buried there with many of his sons.
    "From thence he (Sher Shah Suri) advanced as far as Khushab and was for some days in Bhera. He sent a summons to Sultan Sarang Ghakkar and Sultan Adam who were the leading landholders in that neighbourhood, but as they had been clients of his Majesty Giti-sitani Firdusmakani, and had prospered by the favour of that exalted family they did not listen to his overtures. He advanced as far as Hathiapur in the Ghakkar territory and sent a large force against them. The Ghakhars fought bravely and defeated the Afghans so much that many of them were captured and sold. Sher Khan (Sher Shah Suri) wanted to march against them in person. He consulted his followers and they advised that as this tribe had strong mountains and remote heartlands they should be dealt with by degrees and by policy. The proper course was to leave a large army in that neighbourhood which could both watch the royal army and devastate the country of the Ghakkars. It was also desirable that a strong fort should be built for the carrying out of these two objectives. In consequence of this advice he laid the foundations of the Fort of Rohtas and having left a large force there he marched back and came to Agra".
    "The brief account of this affair is that Sultān Sārang waged brave war with Sher Khān, but at last he and his son Kamāl Khān were made prisoners. Sārang was put to death and Kamāl Khān was imprisoned in Gwāliār fort. But in spite of such disaster their country could not be conquered and the clan was governed by Sultān Adam, the brother of Sultān Sārang. When Sher Khān died and Salīm Khān's turn arrived, he too made great efforts to take the country, but was unsuccessful. One of the wonderful things was that Salīm Khān ordered that all the prisoners in Gwāliār fort should be put to death, and that for this purpose a pit should be dug under the prison and filled with gunpowder and set on fire. There was an explosion, the building was destroyed and the prisoners were blown to pieces; Kamāl Khān was inside, but fate sheltered him from this calamity. In the corner where he was, not a breath of the fire reached him. When Salīm Khān heard of this Divine protection he took an oath (of fidelity) from him and released him. From that time Sultān Adam, his uncle, was in full possession of the country while Kamāl Khān passed his days in frustration."

Medieval Gakhars and Akbar
This illustration to the Akbarnama (Book of Akbar) depicts the victory of the imperial Mughal army, led by Qutb ud-Din and Sharif Khan, over Sultan Adam of Ghakkar (now in north-east Pakistan), in the Panjab in 1563
Jalaludin Muhammad Akbar, also known as Akbar the Great, was the son of Humayun whom he succeeded as ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1556 to 1605. He was the grandson of Mughal conqueror Babur who founded the Mughal dynasty. The Akbarnama written by Abul Fazl is the main source but also the records of European travellers such as "The Commentary of Father Monserrate S.J. on His Journey to the Court of Akbar".
The first act of homage by the Gakhars to Akbar was the capture and surrendering of the traitor Mirza Kamran, brother of Humayun who had joined with the Afghans. This is recorded in Akbarnama.[where?] The Akbarnama also records the growing popularity of Kamal Khan in the Imperial Court.
The Akbarnama also records the falling out of favour of Sultan Adam and his overthrow.
In order to further cement his relations with the Gakhars and use them as an ally against the tubulent Afghans, Akbar in accordance with his well-known policy, contracted matrimonial alliances with them. Prince Salim was married to a daughter of Sayd Khan, a brother of Kamal Khan. Sayd Khan had fought under the Mughal General Zayn Khan against the Afghans in Swat and Bajaur. Later Aurangzeb also honoured the Gakhar chief Allah Kuli Khan (1681–1705) by marrying one of his daughters to his son prince Muhammad Akbar. Thus two Gakhar women found their way into the Imperial harem.
Akbars policy of pacification and reconciliation had its desired effect and we find the Gakhars leading a peaceful and uneventful life during the major part of the Mughal rule. They seem to have only reluctantly accepted Mughal rule however as a celebrated Gakhar warrior-chief, Mukarrab Khan, sided with Nadir Shah and took part in the Battle of Karnal (1739), which showed up the crumbling fabric of the Mughal empire. As a reward for his services, he was confirmed in his possession of the fort of Pharwala and on his return to Kabul, Nader Shah conferred upon him, as a mark of further favour, the title of Nawab (this seems to have been a personal title as no later Gakhar chief ever used it). In his days the Gakhar power was greater than it had perhaps ever been before. He defeated the Yusafzai Afghans and Jang Kuli Khan of Khattak, and captured Gujrat, overrunning the Chib country as far north as Bhimber. He was finally defeated by the Sikhs at Gujrat in 1765 and had to surrender the whole of his possessions up to the Jehlum.

Khan Khel
Khan Khel is a phrase used for the ruling family in Pashtun tribal set up. Khan means the chieftain while Khel stands for a family or descendents.
Khan Khel is also a clan of Tanolis (Black Mountain) and Nandhiaris, They are basically of Afghan origin belonging to afghan tanoli tribe, also reside in Mansehra District in Pakhal valley and Valley of Agror, KPK of Pakistan.

Khankhels were the elders of the swati army which invaded Mansehra in Mughal era. (wrong ) Abdul Rehman Khan known as Pahi Khan Baba came to Pakhal Sarkar along with Syed Jalal Baba who was a descendant of Pir Baba of Swat but do tell the readers that pai khan was a shahkhel and a servant of Jalal Baba. Ruler of the Pakhal Sarkar who was also Father-in-Law of Jalal Shah become their enemy as they became popular because of their attributes. Jalal Baba went back to swat after Sultan Mehmud's (Sultan of Pakhal) attempts of murdering him (JalalBaba). Abdul Rehman Khan the four father of Khankhel of Trangri Sabir Shah came alongwith Syed Jalal BabaThey came back. Syed Jalal Baba with an army of Pakhtoon tribes invaded Pakhali. Sher khan shahzada who was the father of ameer khan shahzada in trangree bala was the khan of trangri-sabir shah and will known influntial person ameer kahn has 4 sons abdul khanan shahzada Gul shahzada Shahzada abdul hameed anaar shahzada All these four brothers were well known for their generasity but Shahzada Abdul Hameed was a pious man and the true Khan of Trangri Sabir Shah. He was a great khan

Durrani  is the name of a chief Pashtun tribal confederation in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Originally known by their ancient name Abdali later as Durrani they have been called Durrani since the beginning of the Durrani Empire in 1747. The number of Durranis are estimated to be roughly 16% of the population of Afghanistan or 5 million individuals. Durrani are found throughout Afghanistan, although large concentrations are found in the South, they are also found to less extent in East, West and Central Afghanistan. They are also found in large numbers in Pakistan, mainly inhabiting the Western area of the nation. The Durrani Pashtuns of Afghanistan are usually bilingual in Pashto and Persian while those of Pakistan in Pashto and Urdu.
The Durranis have been prominent leaders, as the royal family of Afghanistan is derived from this tribe, and a substantial number of Durrani Pashtuns are bureaucrats and public officials, as well as businessmen, wealthy merchants and hold high ranks in the military.

Flag of the Abdali Afghan Tribes. Made from historical Texts & references.
Ahmad Shah Durrani established the Durrani Empire in 1747 and the name Durrani originates from that period.
The Durranis are, like other Pashtun people, most probably Indo-European, Iranic in heritage and language. They were known in the past as Abdalis, from approximately the 7th century until the mid-18th century when Ahmad Shah Durrani was chosen as the new Emir and the Durrani Empire was established. One of Ahmad Shah's first acts as Emir was to adopt the title padshah durr-i durran ('King, "pearl of the age"). He united the Pashtun tribes following a loya jirga in western Kandahar and changed his own name from Ahmad Shah Abdali to Ahmad Shah Durrani. Since that period, the kings of Afghanistan have been of Durrani extraction.
The origins of the Abdalis were most likely the Hephthalites. However, the traditional tribal-mythical account of the Abdalis is traced to (Qais ul-Malik) Abdal Rashid (the first and supposed founder of the Pakhtun/Pukhtun race). Abdal had three sons, one of them was Ibrahim [Sarabun] whose first son was Sharf ud-din [Sharakh-bun] and his eldest son was Tarin (or Tareen) and Tarin's son was Malik Abdul and Abdul's son was Rajjal [Rajor] after Rajjal comes his son Isa, who produced a son Sulaiman (Zirak Khan) who was the ancestor of the Durranis. The Zirak line begins with Sulaiman (Zirak Khan). Zirak was father to Popalzai, Barakzai, and Alakozai.
The Durranis were the most divided Pashtun tribe during the rule of the Ghilzai, with some having openly opposed them. The Durrani are the politically dominant Pashtun group in Afghanistan as the current President of Afghanistan, Hamid Karzai, is of the Durrani sub-group known as the Popalzai and has close ties to the last king of Afghanistan, Zahir Shah, another member of the Durrani tribe Mohammadzai/Barakzai.
According to Hayat Khan's history of Afghanistan from their progenitor Bor Tarin/Tareen, otherwise known as Abdal, are descended their two main divisions the Zirak and the Panjpai. The term Abdal, however, gradually superseded that of Bor Tareen and came into special prominence when Ahmad Shah Abdali Sadozai/Popalzai commonly known as Durrani, began his career of conquest. The Achakzais are, in strictness, a branch of the Barakzai but Ahmad Shah, Durrani himself an Abdal/Bor Tarin/Tareen, fearing the growing numbers of the Barakzai, separated them from the parent stock, since which time their organization has remained distinct. It is still used, though sparingly, for the Achakzais, who have become localised in Toba and are regarded as a separate political unit from the rest of the Tarin/Tareens.

Branches or subtribes
History of Afghanistan principal ruling families. The figure shows the splitting of the Zirak line into the Popalzai, Alokozai, Achakzai (Barech) (the Historical and famous area of Barech Tribes are Qilabes, LashgarGah and Showrawak) and Barakzai branches.
Sadozai Abdali tribe is the tribe Ahmad Shah Abdali was from. The Durrani Tareen tribe is divided into two branches Panjpai and Zirak. Durrani tribes of the Zirak branch include Popalzai, Alikozai, Barakzai, Badozai, and Achakzai.[citation needed]
The Panjpai branch are mainly found in the western Kandahar, Helmand and Farah area, and they include Alizai, Noorzai, Ishakzai or Sakzai, Khogyani(Khakwani), and Maku.
The literacy rate of the Durrani is the highest among all the Pashtun tribes and are also considered the most liberal of the Pashtun tribes. The Durranis continue to live close to other people of Afghanistan and culturally overlap in many ways with the Tajiks whom they often share more cultural and socio-economic traits in comparison to the more tribal Pashtuns such as the Ghilzai, which is the other major Pashtun tribe.

The Mashwani (also Moshwani, Mishwani, Miswani) are a tribal group, living predominantly in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The progenitor of the Mashwanis was a Syed, that is a descendant of the Muslim prophet Muhammad, Sayed Muhammad Hamzah married a Pashtoon woman of Kakar Tribe and he has a son name Sayed Masud (Moshwani). While Verdak and Honey from an another woman of Pushtoon Tribe and Sherani. Since the Pashtun lineage traditionally stems from the father, this tribe is not recognised as Pashtun according to Pashtoonwali. Mashwanis names frequently have the prefix "Syed", meaning belonging to the family of Muhammad.
They are well settled in large numbers in the district of Haripur N.W.F.P of Pakistan and in Dir. They are still good in numbers around Kabul and more than one hundred families in Gandghar. Also they are settled in Daccan Hyderabad of India Mashwanis are brave people with some great history. They have played a brave role against Sikhs and British with Pashtun tribes of the region like Tareens, Shalmani, Swatis, and Jadoon. People like Salim Shah Mashwani, who was martyred by Sikhs, are heroes of Pashtuns.
Their spoken language is Pashto and some of the famous Khels and susbsections are Lodin, Matkani, Roghani, Kazyooni, Ghareeb, Yousafkhel, Moosakhel, Adamkhel, Sakhar, Hasanhhel (Sindh), Azadkhel, Murjankhel, Bhatal, Amanikhel,Jalalkhel Janikhel, Rahati and more.
Syed Umer Khetab of District Haripur Gallai has researched for the last 30-35 years how the Moshwani came to Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
In the name of Allah,who is the most gracious,i dare to take a step towards a history of mashwanis tribe living in the mountain of gari-gundhgar a which streched from the north to south.this mountain has very high peaks.the tribe of mashwanis has a very interesting history.They were considered very brave rigid and stout in the regins of great mughal king Akbar the head of Mashwanis entered in the sub continent through the Khyber pass.Gradually they shifted to many mountainous places.Swat Dir and baluchistan.One of the mashwani settled himself in the "Sari ko"which means the top of hill now it is known as Sirikot .sirikot and its surrounding villeges are closly linked with Sirikot,Though sirikot is the centre of Mashwanis.
mashwani are very stern,stout,brave and labourous.They led very simple and charming lives.Mashwanis are  famous for their hospitality the have very common lives.take share on the occassion of merriage as well as death.They led a brotherhood lives,no sign of enemity and help each others in any difficult time.they settled their disputs themselves.The history of Mashwanis is brought with the courtesy of Mr.Imran shah of chinar kot District.Haripur
On October 8, 2005, Pakistan northern areas and Azad Kashmir were struck by series of  devastating jolts of Earthquake measuring a severe 7.6 on the Richter scale. Instantly  thousands died  and houses shattered, men, women and children buried alive under the fallen debris, many crying  desperately from below the rubble to be saved while still clinging to life. UN officials call it a calamity larger than the sunami that hit last year in  the Indian Ocean .Late  Shahjahan  khan mashwani sub inspector police  who was died on 08th of Oct 2005 earth quake,in Shimlai Batagram.His funeral was attended on the  10th of Oct2005 at his native village Sirikot Dist:Haripur, May Allah bless his soul and grant him paradise. (Shakir mashwani)