Abbottabad

Abbottabad District
 
Abbottabad  is a city located in the Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa of Pakistan and is the third-largest city in the province after Peshawar and Mardan. The city is situated in the Orash Valley, 150 km north of Islamabad and 200 km east of Peshawar at an altitude of 4,120 feet (1,260 m). The city is well-known throughout Pakistan for its pleasant weather, high standard educational institutions and military establishments. It remains a major hub for tourism of the Northern Areas in the summer.
Abbottabad district covers an area of 1,969 km with the city of Abbottabad  being the principal town of this district. Neighbouring districts are Mansehra to the north, Muzaffarabad to the east, Haripur to the west, and Rawalpindi to the south.

Origin of name
The district is named after Major James Abbott, the first deputy commissioner of Hazara (1849 - 1853).

Hazara
During British rule Abbottabad became the capital of Hazara District, which was named after and contained the Hazara valley, a small valley in the outermost Himalayas, between the Indus in the west and Kashmir in the east.
The current Abbottabad District was originally a tehsil of Hazara, the Imperial Gazetteer of India described it as follows:
“Tahsīl of Hazāra District, North West Frontier Province, lying between 33°49' and 34° 22' N. and 72°55' and 73° 31' E., with an area of 715 square miles (1,850 km2). It is bounded on the east by the Jhelum, which divides it from Pūnch and the Punjab District of Rawalpindi; and it comprises part of the mountain valleys drained by the Dor and Harroh rivers, together with the hill country eastward. The hill-sides to the north and north-east are covered with timber forest. The population in 1901 was 194,632, compared with 175,735 in 1891. It contains the towns of ABBOTTABAD (population, 7,764), the tahsil and District head-quarters, and NAWASHAHR (4,114); and 359 villages. The land revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to Rs. 97,000.”

As Hazara District covered a large area, the Government of the Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa decided for administrative purposes to divide Hazara into Abbottabad, Mansehra, Kohistan, Haripur and Batagram districts. In 1981 Hazara was divided and Abbottabad was formed as a district with two tehsils. In 1981 the total area of District Abbottabad was 3,665 square miles (9,490 km2) with a population of 977,212. Tehsil Abbottabad (a sub division of the district) - had an area of 1,802-square-mile (4,670 km2) and a population of 667,328 including 51% of Circle Bakote. In 1990 the total population of the district was 1,425,032 including Circle Bakote 43%.

According to the 1998 census of Pakistan the population of the district was 0.88 million - and according to an estimate this had risen to 1.05 million in 2008.[7] The main tribes are the Dhund Abbasies, Tanolis, Awans, Rajputs, Jadoons,Kashmiri, ] Maliar, Dhanyal, Sarrara, Qureshis, Karrlals, Sheikhs, and the Syeds.[8]

Famous peaks
Miranjani (3,313m) and Mukeshpuri are the highest peaks in Nathia Gali in this district.
Parks and protected areas
Under the North West Frontier Province Wildlife (Protection, Preservation, Conservation and Management) Act of 1975, two areas have been designated with the district: Ayubia National Park and Qalanderabad game reserve.Both areas cover only 6% of the landed area of the district.

Ayubia National Park
Established in 1984, this park covers an area of over 3,312 ha.
Qalanderabad game reserve
Established in 1980 with an area of 8,940ha.

Minerals
Some of the minerals mined within the district are barite, dolomite, granite, gypsum, limestone, magnesite, marble, phosphate, red ochre and red oxide.

Subdivisions
Abbottabad district is divided into two tehsils, Abbottabad and Havelian as well as one urban administration area - Nawanshehr. There are fifty-one Union Councils in the district, 35 in Abbottabad tehsil and 16 in Havelian.
 
Abbottabad Tehsil
    * Abbottabad Central .......... * Bagh .......... * Bagnotar .......... * Bakot .......... * Baldheri .......... * Banda Pir Khan .......... * Beerangali .......... * Berote Kalan .......... * Boi .......... * Chamhad .......... * Dalola .......... * Dhamtour  .......... * Jarral .......... * Jhangi .......... * Kakul Urban .......... * Kehal Urban .......... * Kukmang ..........  *Kuthiala .......... * Kuthwal .......... * Malikpura Urban .......... * [[Mirpur NWFP|urban] .......... * Nagri Bala ..........  * Nambal .......... * Namli Maira .......... * Nathia Gali .......... * Nawansher Urban .......... * Palak ..........  * Pattan Kalan .......... * Pawa .......... * Phalkot ..........  * Pind Kargu Khan .......... * Salhad ..........  * Sarbhana ..........   * Sheikh-ul-Bandi .......... * Sherwan ..........

Havelian Tehsil
    * Banda Attai Khan ..........   * Dewal Manal .......... * Ghari Phulgran ..........  * Goreeni .......... * Havelian Urban ..........  * Jhangra .......... * Langra ..........  * Langrial ..........  * Lora ..........   * Majhuan ..........  * Nagri Totial ..........  * Nara ..........  * Phallah .......... * Seer Gharbi ..........  * Seer Sharqi Bhattian ..........  * Tajwal ..........  *Danna Nooral ..........  * Kiala Paine .......... * Faqir Mohammad .......... * Karhakki .......... * Bodla

Provincial assembly
The district is represented in the provincial assembly by five elected MPAs who represent the following constituencies:
PF-44 (Abbottabad-1)  .......... PF-45 (Abbottabad-2)  .......... PF-46 (Abbottabad-3)  .......... PF-47 (Abbottabad-4) PF-48 (Abbottabad-5)

National assembly
The district is represented in the National Assembly by two elected MNAs who represent the following constituencies:
NA-17 (Abbottabad-I)  .......... NA-18 (Abbottabad-II)

Places of interest
    * Khanka Mahboobabad Shareef Havelian
    * Ilyasi Masjid
    * Thandiyani
    * Harnounee
    * Shimla hill
    * Galyaat
    * Havelian Railway Station

Bakote Circle
Bakote Circle or proposed Tehsil is a cluster of Union Councils in the eastern part of Abbottabad District. Bakote Circle is located on the upper and west bank of the Jhelum River at Kohalla Bridge. The region is somewhere between 65 kilometres and 90 kilometres northwest of Islamabad. "Bakote" means the "land of forts". The Kanhar and Jehlum rivers are the two main rivers in Circle Bakote. Famous hill stations in the area are Miran Jani, Mukeshpuri, Thandiani, Pather Gali, Ayubia, Khanas Pur and Nathia Gali. There are an emerging tourist point at near New Kohala Bridge on Karair Pull.

Ayubia Chair Lifts
Ayubia is 38 km east of Abbottabad. A cluster of four small hill stations of Khanspur, Khairagali, Changlagali and Ghora Dhaka, is called Ayubia and was named after former President Ayub Khan. The complex is spread over an area of 26 km. The central place has chair lifts.

Dungagali
Dungagali is a small resort situated on the slopes of the Mukshpuri hill (2,376 m). It commands a view of a series of wooded spurs projecting towards the river Jhelum on the western side. From Dungagali one can climb the 2,813 metres peak of Mukhshpuri, which is the highest point in the range. Natural springs abound on the slopes. It is 34 km from Abbottabad.

Nathiagali
Nathiagali is clad in pine, walnut, oak and maple trees. It can be approached both from Murree and Abbottabad. It is 32 km from Abbottabad as well as from Murree. Nathiagali is 2493 meter above sea level and is surrounded by mountains.

Thandiani
Thandiani meaning “cold” in the local language, It is one of the highest places of district Abbottabad at an altitude of 2,700 m. It is 31 km from Abbottabad City. The drive takes more or less 80 minutes from Abbottabad with lovely views on both sides of the road. The road rises more than 1,219 metres above Abbottabad. En route from Abbottabad (23 km), the main settlement is the village of Kalapani. "Hullah" is about 2 km east of Thandiani where you can view a part of Muzaffarabad, Pattan Kalan, Chamiali, Bandi, Battangi, and Kukmang and other adjioning area. Very beautiful place to visit in the summer time. Thandiani in on the way between Abbottabad and Pattn Kalan. The view of Pattan Kalan and other adjioning area can be seen from "Hullah" and part of Thandiani.

MarhesMarhes is located some 14 kilometres from Thandiani, a mountain place from where Abbottabad, Mansehra and Muzaffarabad can be seen. Marhes is located in Boi, the border between Muzaffarabad and Abbottabad. The drive takes more than 2 hours from Abbottabad. This is forested area, with some wildlife near the bank of River Kunhar from Balakot to Boi and the 6 kilometres of mountainous areas.

History

Sikh Invasion
In 1818, Sikh Emperor Ranjit Singh invaded and annexed Hazara however in 1820 his generals were defeated by the Muslims. In 1821, during another attempt at conquest by the Sikhs, Amar Singh was killed at Harroh. Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa, the governor of Kashmir, then went to Hazara to battle against the Muslim tribes, but it took him three years to subdue the warlike mountaineers of the outer hills. It was not until 1836 that the Gakhars of Khanpur were finally defeated.[3] Painda Khan was the tribal chief of the Tanoli tribe at the time of the invasion of Hazara by the Sikhs. Mir Painda Khan is famed for his staunch rebellion against Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Governors of Hazara. He was the son of Mir Nawab Khan, who defeated the Durranis and freed his kingdom from their influence. From about 1813, he spent a life long rebellion against the Sikhs. Mir Painda Khan relentless rebellion against the Sikh empire, cost him a major portion of his Kingdom, leaving only his twin capitals Amb and Darband. However, this deterred him less and appeared to increase his resistance against the Sikh government. The District Gazetteer of the North-West Frontier Province (p138) confirms, "Painda Khan, played a considerable part in the history of his time and vigorously opposed the Sikhs." General Abbott commented that "During the first period of Painda Khan's carrer, he was far too vigorous and powerfull to be molested by any neighbouring tribe, and when he began to fail before the armies and purse of the Sikh Government, he was interested in keeping upon the best terms with his northern neighbours of the Black Mountains." He is further described as a Chief renowned on the Border, a wild and energetic man who was never subjugated by the Sikhs. His son Jehandad Khan also followed his footsteps. "Of all the tribal chiefs of Hazara, the most powerful said to be Jehandad Khan of the Tanoli, whose land straddled both banks of the Indus and whose fellow-tribesmen were brave and hardy and accounted for the best swordsmen in Hazara". There was a long history of conflict between Jehandad Khan's family and the Sikhs, and the name of his father Painda Khan, was said to be "magic to the ears of the people of Hazara" because of the struggles he fought on behalf of his "poor circumscribed and rugged principality" against the Sikhs. When Sikh power was on the fall in 1845, Jehandad Khan blockaded the garrisons of no less than 22 Sikh posts in Upper Tanawal and when they surrendered at discretion, he spared their lives, as the servants of a fallen Empire. However in 1845 the local populace, taking advantage of the problems in Lahore (the capital of the Sikh Empire), rose up in rebellion. They drove the governor of Hazara, Diwan Mulraj, to Hasan Abdal in 1846. However, with the conclusion of the first Sikh War, Hazara along with Kashmir was given to Raja Gulab Singh. But in 1847 the Raja gave back Hazara to the Lahore Darbar in exchange for land near Jammu, and Hazara passed into British control.

British Era
Abbottabad in British India was the headquarters of Hazara Division, and named after Major James Abbott who settled this district in 1848 after the annexation of the Punjab. He soon after became the first Deputy Commissioner of the district between 1849 until 1853. Major Abbott is noted for having written a poem titled "Abbottabad", prior to his departure back to Britain, in which he wrote of his fondness for the town and his sadness at having to leave it. Abbottabad became and is still an important military cantonment and sanatorium, being the headquarters of a brigade in the Second Division of the Northern Army Corps[4]. The garrison consisted of four battalions of native infantry (Gurkhas) and four native mountain batteries[5]. In 1901 the population of the town and cantonment was 7764[4] and the income averaged around Rs. 14,900. This increased to Rs. 22,300 in 1903, chiefly derived from octroi. During this time chief public institutions were built such as the Albert Victor unaided Anglo-Vernacular High School, the Municipal Anglo-Vernacular High School and the Government dispensary.[5]. In 1911 the population had risen to 11,506 and the town also contained four battalions of Gurkhas.[6] In June 1948, the British Red Cross opened a hospital in Abbottabad to deal with thousands of patients who were being brought in from the Kashmir fighting areas.

Geography
The city is bounded at all four sides by the Sarban hills, from which residents and tourists can see breathtaking views of the region and city. The location of the city and the hills allows Abbottabad to experience pleasant weather in the summer, and cold winters. The most of the people enters to Abbotabad using the Karakoram highway which passes through a small town named Salhad. Neighbouring districts are Mansehra to the north, Muzaffarabad to the east, Haripur to the west and Rawalpindi to the south. Tarbela Dam is situated just west of Abbottabad.

Topography
Abbottabad is situated in the Orash Valley lying between 34°09′N latitude and 73°13′E longitude at an altitude of 1250m.

Climate
Abbottabad's climate is cold during winters and mild during summers with humid temperatures during June and July. During the winter, the temperature may drop to below 0°C and snowfall is common, especially in January. Most rainfall occurs during the monsoon season in summer, stretching from May to August, and can sometimes cause flooding.

Languages
According to the 1998 Census, of the 81,000 who resided in Abbottabad, Hindko was spoken by 94.26% of the population, followed by Potohari at 2.30%, Pashto at 2.22% and Urdu at 1.05%.[9] Although the first language of most people in Abbottabad is Hindko, Urdu is understood and spoken fluently by majority of the residents and commonly used in the markets, offices and formal functions. English is widely used in business and education.

•Ethnicity
The majority of the residents identify themselves as either Awans,Tanolis, Jadoons,Sattis, Qazis, Karlals, Sadozai, Kashmiris,Mughals, Abbasis, Qureshis, Utmanzai, Syeds and Gujjars.

Government
Abbottabad is the headquarter (capital) of Hazara Division and Abbottabad District. The District Nazim, Commissioner, Inspector General, Forest Conservator all reside in Abbottabad. Abbottabad is divided into localities, towns, colonies and neighbourhoods.

Localities

•Old City
oMir Pur Kalan
oMir Pur Khurd oUpper and lower Salhad oKunj kehal-Abbottabad oKehal oKanshipura oKarimpura oUpper and Lower Malikpura •Cantonment •Kakul •Mandian •Supply •Jhangi

Towns
+ Dobather (muhalla Batangi di Mohri)
•Banda Phugwarian •Musa Zai Colony •Mian De Saree(Kala Pul) •Pool Gulab Road Mir Pur •Jadoon Town •Azam Town •Bilal Town •Gulfam •Jalal Baba Town •Jubilee Town •Jinnahabad •Narrian •Hassan Town •swati town •Mohsin town •qasim town •Karlal Town •Sardar Town •Gulfam Town •Nawaz Town

Colonies
•Civil Officer Colony •Jadoon Colony •Habibullah Colony •Hassan Town •Kaghan Colony •Karral Colony •Kashmir Colony •Khushal Khan Colony •Magistrate Colony •Qazi Colony •Sardarabad •Shahzaman Colony •Sir Syed Colony •Tauheed Colony •Madinah colony
 Neighbourhoods
•Banda Phugwarian •Namli Maira •Nawanshehr •Shaikulbandi •Balkasar •Dobather •Jhangi •Banda Lamba •Majhote •Malikpura •Sagal •Baghnotar •Nagri Bala  •Bandi Maira

Suburbs
•Bainnoora •Baingojri •Chamed •Ghori •Kothiala •Sharwan •Saljot •Qalandarabad

Sports
•Abbottabad Cricket Stadium
•Cricket Stadium, Ayub Medical Complex, Abbottabad
•Abbottabad Hockey Stadium
•Jehanghir Khan Squash Complex
•Kunj Football Ground

Economy
The economy of Abbottabad mainly relies on tourism as well as income generated from the various military and educational institutes.

Education
Abbottabad attracts people from all over Pakistan to its high standard educational institutions. Abbottabad is sometimes referred to "The City of Schools" and is home to a number of schools, colleges and training institutes.

Military institutes
•Pakistan Military Academy
•Army Physical Training School
•Army School of Music
•Regimental Training Centers of the Pakistan Army
oBaloch Regiment
oFrontier Force Regiment (PIFFERS)

Post-secondary institutes
•F. G. Boys Public High School, Abbottabad Cantonment
•COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad
•Government Postgraduate College #1, Abbottabad
•Government Postgraduate College #2 , Mandian Abbottabad
•Hazara University - Abbottabad Campus
•Government College of Management Sciences, Abbottabad
•The Muslim College of Commerce and Management, Abbottabad
•Government College of Technology, Mandian Abbottabad
•University of Science & Technology Abbottabad Campus

Medical institutes & hospitals•Ayub Medical College
•Ayub Teaching Hospital
•Cantonment General Hospital (CGH)
•Women Medical College
•Women Institute of Learning, Abbottabad
•Abbottabad Women & Children's Hospital
•Combined Military Hospital (CMH-Abbottabad)
•Frontier Medical College
•Shaheena Jamil Hospital
•Abbottabad International Medical College
•National Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS)
•Abbottabad District Headquarter Hospital LPC

Engineering institutes
•COMSATS Abbottabad
•University of Engineering and Technology (Peshawar) - Abbottabad campus

===Schools and colleges===
•Federal Government Boys Public High School, Abbottabad Cannt.
(F. G. Boys Publich High School, Abbottabad Cantonment)
•Abbottabad Public School
•Abbottabad Jamia Public School
•Advanced Islamic Public School
•Al-Imtiaz Academy
•Army Burn Hall College
•Army Public School
•Sikandria Public School - Masroor
•Banat Taleem-ul-Quran High School & College
•Beaconhouse Abbottabad Public Schoo * islamic international public school nawan shehr
•Gateway International Public School
•Government Centennial Model Secondary School for Boys, Abbottabad
•Government Centennial Model Secondary School for Girls, Abbottabad
•Government High School #1, Abbottabad
•Government High School #2, Abbottabad
•Government High School #3, Abbottabad
•Government High School, Nambal
•Government Primary School, Nambal
•Government Polytechnical Institute, Abbottabad
•Fauji Foundation Model School
•Al Quran Public School SirSyed Colony Mandian Abbottabad.
•Frontier Force School
•F.G. School for Girls
•F.G. School for Boys
•Iqra Abbottabad Academy
•Iqra Public School
•Iqra Model Public School
•Maria Montessorri School System, Abbottabad
•Modern School System
•Modernage Public School & College
•Pakistan Grammar School
•Pakistan International Public School
•Pine Hills Public School & College
•Present Times Public School & College
•Rose Valley Public High School
•Sir Syed Model Public School
•The City School Abbottabad
•Wisdom House Public School
•The Muslim School & College
•Hamdani Public School

Transportation

Public transport
Abbottabad's main public transport consists of modified Suzukis, which can accommodate anywhere from 8 to 13 people at one time. Taxis are also available as well as wagons which connect Abbottabad to the surrounding cities and towns (ex. Nathiagali, Sherwan, Dhamtour, Haripur, Mansehra) in the region. Abbottabad is also served by Daewoo Express, a national bus service which connects over 50 cities in Pakistan.

Rail
Railway service is not available in Abbottabad city. The nearest railway station Hawalian Railway Station is situated in District Abbottabad. This Railway station is about thirty minutes drive from Abbottabad city. One railway reservation office is situated in Abbottabad near to Fwara Chok to facilitate the people of Abbottabad for advance booking of railway tickets.

Automotive
Apart from its cultural, educational and military importance, this city also has the credit of holding the popular "Automotive" car exhibition and car racing event which promotes professional racing, safe driving and charity in Pakistan. The most recent event was held on 14 August 2008 at Ayub Medical College where more than 2000 people came to see the custom designed and modified from many parts of Pakistan. Dr. Ehsen Naveed Irfan, organizer of the event, called it "a positive effort in progression in the field of car racing in Pakistan". The local press called it a good and safe effort which provided the best entertainment on the Independence day of Pakistan. There are many sports clubs that are working to promote their respective sports. One of them is District Badminton Association of Abbottabad. In the month of June, the same Association arranged the provincial championship. Peshawar District Won Men's singles and Doubles and Boys singles competition. District Abbottabad won Ladies singles and doubles titles.

Notable people

•Athletes
oAbdur Rehman - a former player of Pakistani national team hockey (an Olympian)
oNaeem Akhter - a former player of Pakistani national team hockey (an Olympian)
oYasir Hameed - a Pakistani national team cricket player, and recipient of "Fakhr-e-Hazara"
oQanita Jalil - a Pakistani female national cricket player
oSheraz Awan - Chief Master of Karate Budokan International Pakistan, General Secretary of
NWFP Karate Federation

o[Dildar khan abbasi -former player of N.W.F.P HOCKEY team
oHammad Zahid - a former player of NWFP Basketball team (Several time color holder)

•Religious
oMolana Ghulam Goos Hazarvi
oMolana Muhammad Ishaq Lodhi (R.A)Khateeb-e-Hazara till 1972
oQazi Muhammad Nawaz(R.A)Khateeb Ilyasi Masjid
oMolana Shafiq-ur-Rehaman (R.A)Khateeb-e-Hazara

•Politicians
oLeader of the freedom movement Pir Syed Mahmood Shah Mphaddis Hazarvi
oJalaluddin Khan- Former Interior Minister and Senior Leader of The All-India Muslim League
oAbdul Jamil Khan- (Dr A J Khan) Former Federal Minister and Director General Health of Pakistan
oSheikh Sheraz Mohiuddin- was born in Kunj Qadeem and he became a very popular among the local community and was elected Councilor in 1923.
oSardar Ghulam Nabi Khan- popularly known as Chief Sahib, former MPA and Provincial Minister
oAyub Khan Tanoli- former Provincial Minister of Law, Education and Health
oSardar Mehtab Ahmed Khan Abbasi- former Chief Minister of NWFP
oSardar Haider Zaman Khan- Abbottabad District Nazim
oSardar Sajjad Ahmed Khan- Ex Candidate of PF-48 Abbottabad, Welare and Islamic person
oSardar Mohammad Yaqoob - former Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly
oIqbal Khan Jadoon - former Chief Minister NWFP
oAmanullah Khan Jadoon - former Federal Minister of Petroleum & Gas
oCol. Gulam Mustafa Khan Jadoon - former Abbottabad District Nazim
oOmar Asghar Khan - former Federal Minister and founder of SUNGI, PILER and SEBCON
oAbdullah Muntazir - former spokesperson of Jamaat-ud-Dawah
oNoor-ud-din Qureshi - founder of the All India Muslim League in Hazara in 1936
oHaji Ghulam Mustafa Khan Jadoon (cheif leader of Sippah-e-Sahaba Hazara Range)
oMir zaman khan abbasi pakistan movement worker[muslim league] n.w.f.p

Military and civil service
oAsghar Khan - first Pakistani Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Air Force
oMajor General (R) Raza Khan Tanoli
oCapt Retired Sardar Lal Khan (RA)- retired from British Army in 1945.He was very closed with All india Muslim league. He had sacrificed too much for the establishment of Pakistan. when pakistan came into being he served in Police, CIA and Wapda, He was first army captin from the karlal (sardar)tribe and Union Council Nagri Bala of Abbottabad.
oJustice Sardar Raza Khan - Retired senior Judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan
oQazi Mohammad Farooq - former Chief Justice of The Peshawar High Court
oAslam Khan Tanoli - SP CID, Karachi
oShoukat Ali Awan (Home Secretary Balouchistan 2004-2010)

'Others،
*Peer Syed Mohyuddin Mahboob Hanfi Qadri Sajjada Nasheen Khanka Mahboobabad Shareef Havelian, Author, Researcher, Scholar, Spiritual Leader
*Ali Imran Shaheen - editor of "Weekly Ghazwah Lahore" and a leader of Jamat-ud-Dawah Pakistan
*Abdul Wahid Mir - Director General Students' Quality Circles Pakistan & Director of Pak-Irish Rehabilitation Center
*Syed Mehboob- a Pakistani writer, columnist and researcher
*Naseem Hijazi- A well known novelist. Famous for his history novels such as, Aur Talwar Toot Gai, Muhammad bin Qasim etc
*Sardar Najmul Hassan Sadiq- MS Computer Science, currently doing PHD in Computer Science, a well known young sardar of Makol Bala

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